Cosmetic surgery is a type of plastic surgical intervention with the primary aim to improve a person’s physical appearance.
Cosmetic surgery is a constantly growing surgical procedure all over the world, especially in the last few decades. To look fit, young, and attractive is everyone’s evergreen wish. Medical science has also evolved to meet this demand and numerous new techniques and innovations have taken place.
Cosmetic surgery procedures can be done on almost any part of the body to make it look more attractive or make it more in tune with the whole body. But the decision to undergo cosmetic surgery should be taken only after understanding all the pros and cons of the procedure. The results are close to natural but never makes one younger. Results are also usually permanent, so one should be sure about the decision.
A minor number of patients may be suffering from Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) which may not be cured with any cosmetic surgery procedure. BDD causes a person to believe that there is something bad with the appearance when there is not.
Reconstructive surgery is also a type of plastic surgery with a cosmetic aim. This is done to give a normal appearance and/or function to a part of the body that may have been damaged due to injury or disease, like the reconstruction after a mastectomy for cancer.
Types and uses of Cosmetic surgery
Different types of aesthetic/cosmetic procedures can be done for various parts of the body. The most popular aesthetic/cosmetic procedures are:
Abdominoplasty (“tummy tuck”): is reshaping the abdomen and firming of the skin of the abdomen with the removal of extra fat and skin from the middle and lower abdomen. Usually done after pregnancy or weight loss.
Blepharoplasty (“eyelid surgery”): reshaping or tightening of the skin of the upper or lower eyelids. A with the tissues elsewhere, the skin surrounding the eyes become lax. The upper eyelids droop and the lower lids develop bags under them. Surgery to the eyelids can be functional, cosmetic, or both. Removing excess skin and fat with or without tightening of muscles and tendons in the vicinity may give younger look to the face.
Phalloplasty (“penile surgery”): construction, reconstruction, or modification of the penis by surgery
Mammoplasty: surgical modification of breast to improve physical appearance. Usually done in case of if a woman feels the breasts are too small, if the two breasts have major size differences, or not satisfied with the appearance of the breasts may be due to loss of elasticity with age or if they are saggy. These can be:
Breast augmentations (“breast implant” or “boob job”): augmentation or increase in the size of the breasts with fat grafting, saline, or silicone gel implants, purely for cosmetic purposes. Breast enlargement may help self-esteem and improve sexuality.
Reduction mammoplasty (“breast reduction”): decreasing the size of overgrown breast in females and for gynecomastia in males. Apart from cosmetic reasons a reduction in breast size can relieve physical discomfort and reduce the risk of breast cancer in women at high risk.
Gynaecomastia : in males can be done with liposuction or open incisions around the nipple and areola.
Mastopexy (“breast lift”): removal of the breast skin and glandular tissue & tighten the skin to provide firm breasts. Breast lift is often done after weight loss, old age. Mastopexy can also be combined with an implant which depends on how much one has lost weight.
Buttock augmentation (“butt implant”): To enhance the appearance of buttocks by making them larger surgically. Silicone implants may be used or fat (“Brazilian butt lift”) transfer from another part of the body for enhancement of the buttocks. Excess skin from the lower part of the body like hips, buttocks, and thighs are removed to tighten and lift them. Like other body contouring procedures, these procedures are also often combined with other procedures like abdominoplasty in patients who have lost a significant amount of weight after weight loss or bariatric surgery.
Cryolipolysis: localized reduction of fat deposits under the skin to reshape the body contours with the use of special equipment and with non-invasive methods. The device causes the controlled cooling of the fat cells and their destruction.
Cryoneuromodulation: With the use of nitrous oxide gas superficial and subcutaneous tissue are treated for wrinkle reduction, pain relief, skin conditions, and localized cryo-treatment of tissues.
Calf Augmentation: to add bulk to the calf by silicone implants or fat transfer to the calf muscles.